The physical changes (listed below) documented in crop circle plants by
Michigan biophysicist W.C. Levengood have been determined by evaluating
hundreds of sample plants -- both downed and standing -- taken
from inside the overall perimeter of each formation against hundreds of
control plants taken at varying distances outside each formation, in several
directions. More than 250 individual crop formations from multiple countries,
over a 10-year period were examined in-depth. Although many of the formations
studied were relatively "simple" in overall design and/or relatively "small"
in overall size (primarily because of BLT's financial and/or personnel
limitations, particularly in Europe), many larger and more "complex" formations
-- those whose overall design included intricate geometric shapes with
multiple design elements of varying sizes -- are represented here.
Many of the formations occurred in European countries and, in those cases,
the plants were dried-down in open air for 4-6 weeks prior to shipping
to the U.S. Some of the U.S. and Canadian formations were shipped while
still green. The physical changes found in these crop circle plants, outlined
below, have all been determined to be statistically significant at the
95% level of confidence:
||On the microscopic level,
abnormal enlargement of cell wall pits in bract tissue (a thin
membrane which surrounds the seed- head and through which nutrients
pass to the developing seed) were found. This examination
utilizes the optical microscope and is quite time-consuming and, although
useful in the early, exploratory stages of the research, was replaced
when equally reliable criteria were subsequently discovered.
Enlarged (both laterally
and longitudinally) plant stem nodes — the fibrous "knucle-like"
protuberances found spaced along the plant stem beneath the seed-head,
technically called "pulvini." Although these nodes are sometimes
enlarged both laterally (they are "fatter") and longitudinally (they
are "stretched"), extensive laboratory work has determined that
it is the node elongation (the stretching)
that is a permanent effect caused by the formation energies—and
so this is the parameter now used.
||In some crop formations
the energy system involved is intense enough to cause bending of this
apical (top) node (although pronounced node bending is much more commonly
found at the lower nodes on the plant stem). In a few cases we have
found severe apical node bending in conjunction with
marked stretching of the node. As the example, below,
illustrates the node elongation in such cases is clearly in
addition to that caused by the bending of the node tissues.
with apical node elongation and
extreme bending, in wheat from a Maryland, USA crop formation.
| Apical nodes
in control plants from the same field, taken a distance away
from the crop formation.
|Four plants on
left (from an Italian crop circle) show apical node elongation
& slight bending. Two apical nodes on right are from controls.
||Marked bending of the
plant stem nodes which can occur at all of the nodes in some cases,
is most often observed in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th nodes down toward the
bottom of the stalks. It does occasionally occur in the first, or
apical node beneath the seed-head (see above). Usually this bending
(if it is determined to be significant after ruling out natural plant
recovery processes) is in the range of 45-90 degrees—and considerable
care must be taken to not confuse this node bending with two well-known
plant recovery processes, phototropism (the plant's natural tendency
to reorient itself to sunlight) and gravitropism (the plant's natural
tendency to reorient itself to the earth's gravitational field).
BENDING, which may (depending on the age of the crop when
formation occurred & time elapsed since then) or may not be
indicative of the genuine phenomenon.
Depending upon the growth-stage of the plant at the time it is downed
(whether it is young or old) and the species of crop involved, these
natural recovery processes - phototropism and gravitropism - begin
to take effect within days. Therefore node bending can only be understood
as significant when it is known how old the affected crop was at the
time the crop circle occurred and, particularly, how many days have
elapsed since then. [Young barley, for instance, begins recovery to
the up-right position almost immediately and will show significant
node bending within a week; young wheat tends to recover slightly
more slowly. And mature crop may not reorient itself at all, depending
on the amount of vigor inherent in the plants.] But when crop circles
are known to have formed during a specific time period and are found
within 24-48 hrs., and significant node bending (40° +) is observed,
this is an effect that can be attributed to the causative energy system.
In some cases canola (rape-seed) plants have been observed to be bent
at a full 180°.
Bending at the base
of the plant stem is a totally separate condition which
is thought by many people to indicate that any formation in which
it is found is "genuine" (not mechanically flattened).
This type of bending is found at the very bottom of the stem, where
it comes out of the earth, and is often quite pronounced.
bending at the base of conola/oilseed
rape plants -- which are known to break, not bend, when mechanically
Photos: Janet Ossebaard
Although this particular parameter
has not been scientifically evaluated,
it is known that mechanical flattening (with planks, boards or human
feet) of many plants (particularly canola, above) will snap or break
the plant stems, rather than bend them. As the summer progresses
and the cereal crops - in which a majority of the crop formations
occur - dry down, the plants become less and less elastic, making
bending at the stem base in these crops perhaps more significant
later on in the season.
||Expulsion cavities (holes blown
out at the plant stem nodes), usually found in the 2nd node beneath
the seed-head, but in recent years discovered also in the 3rd and
4th nodes all the way down the plant stem. A darkening of the stem
node, particularly when expulsion cavities are present, is usually
the result of the growth of an opportunistic fungus (Ustilago tritici)
which quickly forms on the exudate released from inside the plant
expulsion cavity found when crop circles occur in young wheat,
oats & barley. These holes are not always present in "real"
circles and occur usually in the 2nd or 3rd nodes down from
cavities in older, mature plants can also look like this example,
in mature wheat.
cavities in older, mature barley plants.
||Stunted, malformed seeds and germination
effects. There are four basic changes to the seeds and germination
capability in crop circle plants documented so far. These radically
different reproductive effects depend upon the species of crop involved,
the growth phase of the plants at the time the crop circle occurs,
and the composition and intensity level of the energy system involved
(which appears to differ slightly within each event as well as from
event to event):
||If the crop circle occurs
prior to anthesis (the flowering of the plant) and the development
of the seed, the somatic (non-reproductive) tissue of the plant will
continue to develop normally -- but seed development ceases or is
impaired. Normally-formed glumes have been found which are totally
devoid of seeds.
Crop circle seed-head (right) has no seeds, due to destruction
of plant's reproductive capacity. Found only when crop circles
occur in very immature plants.
||When crop circles occur
at a slightly later growth stage, in young crop where the seed is
still forming, the developing embryo fails to grow normally. These
seeds will be visually stunted (smaller), will weigh less than their
controls, and will exhibit reduced or repressed germination.
Here, the reproductive capacity of the plant has been compromised.
STUNTED & DEHYDRATED
MAIZE SEEDS (on right).
These occur when embryos are already formed, or partially
when crop circle occurs.
CONTROL MAIZE SEEDLINGS AT 7 DAYS
FORMATION MAIZE SEEDLINGS AT 7 DAYS
Showing reduced seedling growth-rate, which typically
occurs if crop circles form in plants which are at an intermediate
|| When crop circles occur
in more mature plants, where the embryo is fully formed or nearly
so, the seeds will again be visually stunted and will weigh less than
normal, but the effects on reproduction vary. One effect observed
has been an alteration in normal growth-habit of the developing
seedlings: in species which have a normal variability of growth at
particular stages, this variability has been lost -- with the result
being that all of the germinating seeds exhibit synchronized growth.
SEEDLINGS, 12-DAY WHEAT
Showing normal variation of growth-rate (height)
for this particular species at this stage of development.
SEEDLINGS, 12-DAY WHEAT
Showing induced synchronization of growth.
||Finally, when crop circles
occur in mature plants with fully formed seeds, these seeds often
exhibit a statistically significant massive increase in growth
rate and vigor, with growth-rate up to five times the rate of
the control seeds. Further, these seedlings can tolerate extreme stress
(lack of water and/or light) for considerable periods of time without
INCREASED GROWTH-RATE OF FORMATION SEEDLINGS
(as opposed to controls), in seeds from crop which
was mature when crop circle formed.
The plant aberrations described above are
thought to be caused by exposure of the plants to a complex atmospheric
plasma energy system which is emitting heat (probably microwaves) in association
with unusual electrical pulses and strong magnetic fields. The microwave
component heats up the internal moisture in the plant stems (even mature
crop nearing harvest contains some moisture), turning it to steam. In younger
crop, where the external fibers are more elastic, the steam seeps out at
the nodes by stretching these fibers; in older crop, where the external
fibers are tougher and less elastic, the build-up of steam explodes out
from the nodes, creating the holes subsequently found. The final effects
on the individual plants depend upon a number factors, including the complexity
and intensity level of the microwave component (which varies in each event
and from location to location within any given crop circle), the modifying
influence of the electrical pulses also involved, as well as the species,
variety and age of the plants involved.
[Laboratory Photos & Graphs: W.C. Levengood]
Principle. A clear indicator
of the electromagnetic nature of the energies which cause node-length
change in crop circles is the discovery that, in some formations,
node-length change decreases from the center of the circle out to
its edges in a very precise manner. In fact, these node-length
changes were found to agree with a well-known law in physics -- the
Beer-Lambert Principle -- which describes the absorption
of EM energy by matter. In these cases the node-length increase was
greatest at the center of the circle, decreasing as a function of
sampling distance away from the center and toward the perimeter.
Example 1, below, is of a completely flattened circle; examples
2 & 3 each had a standing central tuft.
In another case, involving a simple
circle in southern Holland, a bright "pinkish-purple" football-shaped
light was seen to hover low over a field. It then elongagated into
a disc-shaped light, subsequently discharging an energy (described
by the witness as "like the Shuttle") down toward the crop
surface, at which time the plants flattened into a circle. This circle
was carefully sampled along three diameters and, in the laboratory,
it was found that the node-length changes on both sides of each sampled
diameter precisely mirrored each other -- but each diameter's node-length
changes differed from those found along the other
two diameters. Exactly how this effect could have been produced
is not understood.
Replication of Crop Circle Plant Changes. Apical node (the
first node beneath the seed-head) elongation and expulsion cavities
(holes blown out at the lower plant-stem nodes) have been induced
in normal plants in the laboratory by placing them in a commercial
microwave oven for between 20-30 seconds. It is microwave radiation,
here, that is heating up the moisture inside the plant stem which--as
it turns to steam and expands--either stretches the more elastic fibers
at the top of the plant, or blows holes in the tougher nodes farther
down the plant stem.
The more positive plant changes--enhanced growth rate, increased yield
& increased stress tolerance--observed in the laboratory in seedlings
grown from cropcircle plants which were mature when the crop
circles occured, have also been replicated in the laboratory. In 1998
W.C. Levengood and John Burke obtained a patent (Patent #5740627)
on equipment they developed which delivers unusual electrical pulses
to normal seed. Called the MIR process and carrying the registered
Trademark "Stressguard," this equipment creates organized
electron-ion avalanches which then form organized plasmas, to which
seeds are exposed.
Corn, tomato, carrot and many other seeds will, after exposure to
the MIR "Stressguard"
process, show increased seedling growth-rate and accelerated maturity,
increased yield (25-35%), and a substantial improvement in ability
to withstand typical plant "stressors" (lack of water and/or
sunlight). Numerous field trials with a wide variety of seed have
substantiated these results and a commercial application is being
The ability to replicate in the laboratory many of the changes documented
in cropcircle plants is a strong indicator that the energies utilized
in the lab are also involved as causative mechanisms in the field.
In the field the major question is where are these plasma systems
originating, and why?
An important final note regarding these changes to crop circle plants is
the fact that non-geometrically-downed crop -- usually called "lodging"
by farmers and attributed to over-fertilization of the field and/or subsequent
weather damage -- has sometimes been found to show these same changes.
(See Non-Geometric Crop Formations.)
This more randomly-downed, or chaotically-downed crop is often observed
in the same fields in which "geometric" crop circles occur, but is also
found in fields where no geometric crop circle exists. In some cases it
is thought that this chaotically-downed crop is due to weather damage alone.
However, testing has revealed that in many instances the same energetic
situation involved in the geometric events is also involved in these non-geometrically
downed areas. A control study carried out in 1997 did not reveal any of
the typical plant anomalies in 100% over-fertilized wheat grown for commercial